Was Aelia Capitolina founded twice?
The above relief is from the Arch of Titus in Rome. It shows Roman legions returning after the First Jewish Revolt with the remains of the Second Temple religious objects. The placards with the triangular objects at the ends are likely Roman Legion standards and I will explain below how this is relevant.
The founding of Aelia Capitolina by Hadrian is a complicated subject and there is much controversy. The coins of Hadrian with the typical Roman foundation scene are cited as the main reason for the Bar Kochba Revolt. Hadrian plows the Temple Mount to build the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Estimates are between 129-132 AD. The question of whether the Bar Kochba Rebels took Jerusalem is difficult to determine for archeologists. We know in the early days of the rebellion the 10th legion suffered extreme losses. Scholars have speculated the Bar Kochba rebels actually took the treasury of the 10th legion to overstrike their coins with the images of the Second Jewish Revolt. Let's have a close look at one of Hadrian's foundation coins.
Note the legionary standard above the oxen is very similar to the placards in the arch of Titus, but one half is missing. The legionary placards on some of Hadrian's coins do not have these triangular ends. Were they minted at different times? Below are some high resolution x-ray images of the above coin.
These coins are very worn and I believe none have clear details present. Thru x-ray analysis one can clearly see the "X" INSIGNIA on the main placard. Note that only one half of the triangular end is present. Does this signify the losses and defeat of the 10th Fretensis? Did the Bar Kochba rebels actually take Jerusalem and did Hadrian "refound" the city at the start of the Rebellion in 132-133 AD. Note the previously described solar eclipses in 132 AD seen first in Judea then in Rome. Roman foundation myths clearly describe Romulus and Remus as being conceived by the Roman war god Mars at the time of a solar eclipse. Did the Romans incorporate solar eclipse occurrences into their war plans, conquests, and colony foundations? Read the posts and make your own decisions.
The Romans were profoundly superstitious. Specific astrologic and astronomic knowledge remained in the hands of the elite and was specifically used to promote their own agendas. Remember up to a third of the Roman population were slaves. Their society was very different yet in many ways still similar to ours today. Judeo-Christain theology promotes open knowledge and only it's cults advocate secrecy. Astronomic events are not astrology. It's always interesting the Roman Empire became officially Christian as a result of the Chi-Rho symbol seen in the sky by Constantine. The Romans were paying attention to the sky as every civilization does. Solar eclipses have influenced society in profound ways and this website attempts to further explain knowledge that has been lost to the past.